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Chronic Kidney Disease


Chronic Kidney Disease

Functions of Kidney :

i. Removal of waste products.
ii. Excrete extra water.
iii. Maintain Electrolyte balance.





Causes :

1.Diabetic Mellitus ( Sugar deposited in the nephron fibrous tissues )
2.Hypertension
3.Glomerulonephritis
4.NSAIDS.
5.Polycystic Kidney Diseases
6. Kidney stones
7.Vesicoureflex in children.



Symptoms :

1.Decreased urinary out put
2. Edema and SOB
3. Toxins accumulate and cause the decrease appetite
4. Decrease Hemoglobin

          In kidney diseases hemoglobin values decreases the reason  behind is kidney only produces the erythropoietin. The major role of the erythropoietin helps in production of the hemoglobin. When kidney failure occur erythropoietin formation will be reduced. Due to reduction of the erythropoietin Hemoglobin formation will decrease.
5. Increase Blood pressure
6. Pruritis
7. Uremic odour ( through Mouth, Skin, )

Investigations :

A.Blood Urea >40 ( Normal Value : 15-40 )
B. Serum Creatinine > 1.20 ( Normal Value : 0.6 – 1.2 )
C. Electrolytes levels ( Na+. Cl-, K+,)
D. Hemoglobin
E. USG abdomen.

Treatment :

1.Diuretics
2. Erythropoietin / Iron / B12
3. Calcium and Vitamin – D
4. Dialysis Or Kidney Transplantation
{ In kidney transplantation the 3rd kidney kept on right illiac fossa.

Diet :

1.Fluid Should be restricted ( 1 – 1.5 liter per day )
2. Salt ( It loads in the kidney filters ) ( <3g per day ).
{ South indians consumes 8g salt per day }
3. Restrict Protein food ( 0.8g/kg per day )
{ Meat, Fish, Egg, Soya beans, Panner }
4. Restriction of Potassium K+
( Banana, Coconut water contain high Potassium leads to cardiac arrhythmias }

Apple, Guva, Papaya, Pine apple can be taken for Chornic Kidney diseases  




Related Posts

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY

Kidney Anatomy  
Nephron Anatomy.  
Ureter Anatomy  
Urethra Anatomy  
Urinary Bladder Anatomy

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