Human Anatomy Important For Staffnurse
√√Longest bone in human body -- Femur (thigh bone)
√√ Smallest bone STAPES the middle ear
√√ Hardest material in the human body Tooth -- enamel
√√ Strongest muscle Jaw muscle
√√ Largest external organ -- Skin
√√ Largest internal organ Liver
√√ Smallest gland -- Pituitary
√√ Largest artery -- Aorta
√√ Smallest blood vessel -- Capillary
√√ Element most common in human body -- Oxygen (65%)
√√ Mineral most common in human body -- Calcium
√√ Compound most common in human body -- Water
√√ Pigment which gives a dark colour to the skin Melanin
√√ Nails are modification of EPIDERMIS (external layer of skin)
√√ Muscles are attached to bones by connective tissues called --
√√ Bones are attached to bones by -- Ligaments
√√ Sebaceous glands in human body secrete -- Sebum or oil
√√ Lachrymal glands in human body secrete -- Tears
√√ The volume of blood in an adult is -- 4.7 to 5 litres
√√ The total number of bones in human body is -- 206
√√ The most common type of blood group is -- Type O
1. Potassium is mainly regulated by - Aldosterone.
2. Tip of scapula at level – T7.
3. Oblique fissure of the lung at level - T3 to T6 Costochondral.
4. Decussating of medial lemniscuses - Internal Arcuate Fibers.
5. Superficial temporal artery relation with which nerve - Auriculotemporal nerve.
6. Correct about Thyroid gland - lymph drainage to deep cervical lymph nodes.
7. Anemic hypoxia occur in – Methemoglobulenemia.
8. In cerebral circulation brain arteries - Do not anastomose once entered in the brain (controvertial).
9. Phase 1 of transformation of drug metabolism – Oxidation.
10. Standard deviation shows - Variability of individual observation.
11. Counseling in patients is - To help themselves.
12. A young girl who is going to die and asks you “Am I going to die?” Doctor response should be – “What your parents have told you?”
13. In whole wheat – Thiamine.
14. Cholesterol enriched diet – Egg.
15. Origin of peroxisomes – SER.
16. Organelle where protein combines with carbohydrates, packed and released - Golgi complex.
17. Correct about DNA – Euchromatin is transcriptionally active.
18. ADPKD associated with – Renal failure (vs) Cerebral haemorrhage (controversial) here most probable Renal failure.
19. Cause of delay in healing – Infections.
20. PaO2 decreased, PCO2 increased, hydrogen ion increased; manifestation (looked like kind of COPD) – Hypoventilation.
21. PCO2 31, HCO3 19, pH increased (Metabolic alkalosis scenario) - Hyperventilation
22. Person with tachycardia, and heat intolerance with low level of TSH, on giving TRH; level of TSH and thyroid hormones increases. Diagnosis – Hyperthyroidism with thyroid problem.
23. Origin of oxytocin and ADH – Hypothalamus.
24. Difference between systemic and pulmonary circulation - Low resistance in pulmonary circulation.
25. Mean systemic filling pressure is regulated by - Venous return.
26. Systolic pressure is directly related to which one of the following – Renin.
27. ADH responds to – Osmolarity.
28. Osmoreceptors – ADH.
29. Right border of heart on X-ray also visible a part of – SVC.
30. In MI sensitive cardio marker – Tropinin T.
31. Diabetic nephropathy investigation - Urine albumin.
32. Young boy with generalized edema and proteinuria - Lesion of basement membrane.
33. Lesion of parasympathetic system affects mostly - GI muscles.
34. Stress hormone of our body - ACTH.
35. S2 sound heard on - Closure of aortic and pulmonary valve.
36. A patient with history hemorrhage (trauma) receives a bag stored for 2 weeks mainly contains – RBCs.
37. Due to inspiration – Decreased negative intrapleural pressure.
38. Important buffer of blood - HCO3-.
39. Max increase in ECF due to infusion of - Hypertonic NaCl.
40. Auscultation of tricuspid valve best heard at – Right lower end of the body of sternum.
41. GVE vagus nerve for preganglionic fiber arises from – Dorsal nucleus.
42. Thorn prick in left lower limb caused abscess - Staph aureus.
43. Diabetic female after abdominal surgery; dyspnea and cough - Pulmonary embolism.
44. MCC of pulmonary embolism – DVT.
45. Typhoid fever 1st week test – Blood culture
46. Typhoid fever 2nd week test – Blood culture and Widal test.
47. Typical feature of falciparum - Black water fever.
48. Alcoholic patient with deranged LFTs; on biopsy – Mallory bodies.
49. Councilman bodies seen in – Apoptosis.
50. Natural self-defense against tumors – Apoptosis.
51. P53 gene absent results in - cell survival.
52. Pain mediator - Bradykinins.
53. Metaplasia – Functional change in cells.
54. Female with infection of HPV, comes after 2 years, Pap smear shows prominent nucleoli and increased nucleus size – Dysplasia.
55. Gas exchange occur - Simple squamous epithelial layer.
56. Patient with granulomatous disease, biopsy done. Microscopic finding that suggests TB – Epitheloid cells.
57. The spindle fibers will decrease in discharge of impulses when - Muscle contracts (vs) When efferent gamma discharge occurs. (controversial) here most probable “muscle contracts”
58. Diagnosis for leprosy, initial investigation - Nasal scrapping.
59. Benign neoplasm – Adenoma.
60. 3 germ layers tumor – Teratoma.
61. When adrenalin release from medulla, causes vasodilation by acting on - Beta 2 adrenergic receptors.
62. Increased GFR and increased plasma flow occur due to - Dilation of afferent arteriole.
63. Charateristic of cerebellar lesion - Dymetria
64. Emax of a drug depends on – Efficacy
65. Study in which every person of a population has equal chances of being selected – Random sampling.
66. Amniocenthesis is done - After 14th weeks.
67. 1st response against acute inflammation in tissue – Macrophages.
68. In dark granules containing cells; IgE attaches to – Basophils.
69. Opsonization - C3b.
70. Exudate - more than 3g of proteins.
71. About active transport of drug all are true except - All drugs pass via active transport.
72. Pulmonary artery supply to – Alveoli.
73. Muscles of back innervated by - Dorsal rami.
74. In young boy dyspnea produced on lying - Retrosternal goiter.
75. Most important cause of bronchogenic cancer – Smoking.
76. Edema caused by - Increased hydrostatic pressure.
77. Edema caused by - Lymphatic blockage.
78. BP 210/180mmHg and creatinine 8% damaged part – Juxtaglomerular apparatus.
79. Female with blood group A, have 2 children; one with O and other with AB, blood group of father is – B.
80. Genetically true hermaphrodite – XX/XY.
81. DNA replication occur in – Interphase.
82. Glycogenolysis caused by deficiency of which hormone - Insulin
83. Investigation for liver amoebic abscess – Serology.
84. Surgery of submandibular gland; nerve damaged - marginal mandibular branch of facial.
85. On posterior surface of oblique and transversalis fascia - Arcuate line.
86. Aspirin overdose causes – Coma.
87. Cardiac output measurement via thermodilution – Temperature change downstream with CO.
88. Father with defective gene on one autosomal chromosome, develops disease later in his life; chances of getting disease in children – Half of the children will be affected.
89. If left circumflex artery occluded - Infarction of left atrium and left ventricle.
90. MCC of multiple fractures in adult – Osteoporosis.
91. Patient with fracture of many bones and low BP immediate treatment - Volume replacement.
92. Most common fracture of long bone - Tibia.
93. Collagen fibers – Eosin stain
94. Gamma efferent supply to – Intrafusal muscle spindles.
95. Micturition – Self generating.
96. Hallmark of HIV – Proliferation of virus in T-Cells.
97. 1g protein gives energy – 4 kcalories.
98. Isotonic and isometric contraction difference is that isotonic contraction – consumes more phosphate bond.
99. Autonomic nervous system – parasympathetic increase salivary secretion.
100. Protrusion of mandible – Lateral pterygoid.....
Significance of Lead aVR in ECG:
*** 1st: In a case of suspected acute coronary syndrome, presence of ST elevation in Lead aVR > 1 mm predicts either left main dse or proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion with severe triple‑vessel disease (TVD).
ST elevation in aVR > V1 predicts acute LMCA occlusion, ST elevation in V1 > aVR is more predictive of LAD occlusion usually proximal to first septal branch.
*** 2nd : In patients having narrow complex tachycardia, presence of ST segment elevation in lead aVR favors atrioventricular reentry through accessory pathway rather than atrial ventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia as mechanism of tachycardia.
*** 3rd: “aVR sign” is defined as R wave ≥0.3 mV or R/q ≥ 0.75 in lead aVR. It is considered as a risk factor for life‑threatening arrhythmic events in patients with Brugada syndrome.
*** 4th: Reciprocal ST segment depression and PR segment elevation (knuckle sign) in lead aVR are characteristic and help in supporting a diagnosis of acute pericarditis.
*** 5th: In patients with suspected poisoning presence of tall R wave in lead aVR along with the presence of QRS and QT prolongation should suggest the possibility of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning.
*** 6th: Both dextrocardia and lead reversal (left arm/right arm leads) mimic each other can present with P wave and QRS complex are upright in lead aVR. In case of lead reversal, the precordial pattern (V1 to V6) is normal. With dextrocardia, the QRS voltage gradually diminishes from V1 through V6
*** 7th: Left Ventricular Aneurysm (Goldbergers sign) : In patients with Anterior wall MI with persistent ST elevation in chest leads and tall R in lead aVR is indicative of ventricular aneurysm (Goldbergers sign). In acute ST elevation lead aVR usually shows negative QRS.
*** 8th: Tension Pneumothorax: The ECG changes are more common in left pneumothorax, with or without tension, including a right QRS axis deviation, low QRS voltage, reduced precordial R-wave voltage, and anterior T-wave inversion. Marked PR-segment elevation in inferior leads and reciprocal PR-segment depression in lead aVR.
*** 9th: Atrial infarction: In the presense of acute Inferior wall MI, PR segment elevation in inferior leads and PR segment depression in lead aVR is suggestive of Atrial infarction.
*** 10th: Acute pulmonary embolism: Acute right ventricular overload could also manifest as ST-segment elevation in lead aVR.