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Stomach Anatomy

Anatomy Of Stomach

  • It is the most dilated part of the digestive tube occupies the epigastric, Umblical and left hypochondrial regions.
  • It is a continuation downwards esophagus.
  • Below it is continued as duodenum.
  • It is ‘j’ shaped and has 2 ends, cardiac and pyloric, 2 orifices cardiac and pyloric.
         2 borders : Lesser curvature and greater curvature.
         2 surfaces : Anterosuperior and posteroinferiror.
         3 parts : Funds, body and pylorus,
         2 angles : Cardiac and incisures angularis.
  • Through the cardiac orifice, it communicates with esophagus, through the pyloric orifice, it communicate with duodenum.
  • The fundus is the uppermost part of stomach which is filled with only gas.
  • The pylorus is the lower most part of stomach.
  • It is divided into two parts : pyloric antrum and pyloric canal.
  • Peritoneal attachments of stomach : the lesser curvatures gives attachment to greater omentum which connects the stomach to the colon end of the large intestive.
  • The fundus will give attachment to gastroplenic ligament which connects the stomach to the spleen.
  • Blood supply : the stomach is supplied by right and left gastric arteries right and left gastro epilploic arteries, short gastric arteries.
  • Venous Drainage : Veins correspond to arteries and they all drain into portal vein.
  • Nerve Supply : Vagus nerves, lymphatic drainage into the celiac group of lymph nodes.
  • With in the wall of the stomach, there are four layers. From inside outwards they are mucosa, sub mucosa, muscular layer and serosa.
  • The mucosa of the stomach is thrown into temporary folds called rugae. They will disappear when the stomach is filled with food.
  • The muscular layer is composed of smooth muscle fibres which are arranged in 3 layers, inner oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal.
  • The contraction of oblique muscle fibres make the food with in the stomach into a very free consistency.
  • The middle circular fibres will close the pyloric opening of the stomach and will not allow the food to leave the stomach till digestion is complete.
  • The longitudinal muscle fibers will empty the stomach outer the digestion is complete.

Applied Anatomy :

peptic ulcer : Inflammation of gastric mucosa is called as gastritis. If not treated it can lead to the formation of an ulcer called as peptic ulcer.

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