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Large intestine

Anatomy Of Large Intestine

  • Caecum : it is the beginning of large intestine
  • It is present in the right iliac fossa.
  • Into the postero medial wall of caecum, the ileum will open through the ileocaecal orifice which is guarded by a valve.
  • 2cms below this, the appendix will open through appendicular orifice which is also guarded by a valve.
  • The caecum is continued upward as ascending colon.
  • There are four types of caecum.
  • Arterial supply : Anterial and posterial caecal arteries.
  • Venous drainage : Into superior mesenteric vein.
  • Lymphatic Drainage : into the superior mesentric group of lymph of lymph nodes.
  • Nerve supply : vagus nerves.

Vermiform Appendix :

  • It is the narrowest part of the digestive tube.
  • It belongs to the large intestine.
  • It is a vestigial organ in human beings.
  • It has got a base, body and tip.
  • The tip is coiled upon itself there by it looks like a worm, so it is called as vermiform appendix.
  • The base opens into the caecum through appendicular orifice which is present 2 cms below the ilio-caecal orifice.
  • It is guarded by a valve.
  • Depending on the location of the tip there are various positions of appendix.
  • Arterial supply : Appendicular artery.
  • Venous drainage : superior mesenteric veins.
  • Nerve supply : vagus nerves.
  • Lymphatic drainage : superior mesenteric group of lymph nodes.

Applied Anatomy :

  • Inflammation of appendix is called as appendicitis it is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain. The patient complaints of severe pain in the abdomen, fever and vomiting.
  • It has to be treated by an emergency surgery the appendix has to be removed. This procedure is called as appendectomy.

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