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Liver Anatomy

Anatomy of Liver

  • It is the largest gland of human body.
  • It is triangular in shape.
  • It weight is around 1500gms.
  • It is located in the right hypochondrium, epigastrium and left hypochondrial regions.
  • It has a base which is towards the right side and an apex which is toward the left side and an apex which is toward the left side.
  • It has 5 surfaces; anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, and right surface.
  • It has one border, inferior border.
  • The fundus of the gall bladder will be projecting below the inferior border.
  • The anterior surface is smooth and convex.
  • The attachment of the falciform ligament on this surface divides it into larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe.
  • On the postero superior surface there is a triangular shaped base are of liver which is not covered by peritoneum.

  • Inferior surface : it is also called as visceral surface because it is in contact with other abdominal organs. On this surface the right and left lobes are separated by fissure for ligamentum teres and fissure for ligamentum venosum.
  • On this surface, the right lobe will have two more small lobes called as quadrate lobe and caudate lobe. To the right of the quadrate lobe there is gall bladder. To the right of caudate lobe, there is inferior venacava.
  • Between the caudate and quadrate lobe there is portahepatis through which portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct will pass.
  • The right lobe of liver is related to right kidney, related suprarenal gland and right colic flexure and duodenum.
  • The left lobe is related to esophagus of stomach.
  • Arterial supply : Hepatic artery.
  • Venous Drainage : Hepatic veins which will open into inferior venacava.
  • Lymphatic Drainage : Coeliac group of lymph nodes.
  • Nerve supply : Vagus nerves.

Microscopic Structure of Liver :

  • The liver is covered by a capsule called as glisson’s capsule.
  • It sends septa into the gland dividing it into hexagonal shaped hepatic lobules.

  • In the middle of each hepatic lobule there is a central vein.
  • Radiating from the central vein towards the periphery there are sheets of hepatocytes.
  • The spaces between the sheets of hepatocytes are occupied by sinusoids.
  • The wall of sinusoids are lined by phagocytic cells called as kupffer cells.
  • At the junction of 3 adjacent hepatic lobules there is a portal triad which is composed of portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct.

Applied Anatomy :

  • Inflammation of liver is called as hepatitis. The most common cause is viral hepatitis which will occur through contaminated food and water it causes 'jaundice'.
  • Other causes for hepatitis are drugs, alcohol, parasitic infections.

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