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Congenital Anomalies / Birth Defects

CONGENITAL ANOMALIES / BIRTH DEFECTS

DEFINITION :

          According to WHO the term congenital malformation confined to structural defects at birth.

RISK FACTORS:

  • Exposure to chemicals/substances
  • Methyl mercury poisoning
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Rubella virus
  • Phenyl ketonuria
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Radiation
  • Consanguineous marriages

COMMON CONGENITAL ANOMOLIES :

Cardio vascular system :

  • Ventricular septal defects
  • Atrial septal defects
  • Tetrology of fallot
  • Patent ductus arteriousis
  • Trans position of  greater arteries
  • Valvular defects, etc….

Digestive system :

  • Cleft lip
  • Cleft palate
  • Oesophageal  Artesia
  • Hyper pyloric stenosis
  • Congenital mega colon,etc…..
  • Central nervous system
  • Anencephaly
  • Micro/macro cephaly
  • Meningocele
  • Meningomylocele, etc….

Reproductive system :

  Male :

  • Hydrocele
  • Cryptorchidism, etc…

Female :

  • Vaginal agensis
  • Unicornuate uterus
  • Cervical agensis, etc…
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Clubfoot
  • Hip dislocation, etc…
  • Haematological system
  • Congenital leukaemia
  • Sickle cell anaemia
  •  Thalassemia ,etc….

Respiratory system :

  • Lung agenises
  • Tracheo oesophageal fistula ,etc…..

PREVENTION OF RISK FACTORS :

1. Genitic counselling:

  • Do not take self medications during pregnancy.
  • Treat the infections promptly.

2. Avoid consanguineous marriages :

3. Improve the nutritional status of mothers during early pregnancy period
4. Avoid smoking & alcohol in pregnancy    period
5. Adequate folic acid supplementation
6. Couples with congenital /genetic disorders should seek medical advice before conceiving.
7. Immunization.
8. Avoid exposure to chemicals & radiation during pregnancy.
9. Focus on girls’ child health in view of producing healthy generations.

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