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Hypotension


Hypotension

Definition :

     Low blood pressure than normal.

Types :

1.Orthostatic Hypotension

     Sudden drop of BP when standing suddenly from resting position.

2.Postprandial Hypotension

     BP decreases after eating
Seen in old age.

3.Normally Mediated Hypotension

     Comes in younger adults if doing a particular work for a long time.

4. Low BP due to Nervous System Damage :

     Damage to autonomic nervous system that control involuntary movement.

1.Orthostatic Hypotension :

     Sudden drop in BP when stand up from a sitting position or if stand up after lying down.

Causes :

  • Dehydration
  • Prolonged bed rest
  • Pregnancy
  • Heart problems
     Number of medications can also cause orthostatic hypotension particularly drugs used to treatment of Hypertension.

2. Post prandial hypotension : ( Low BP after eating )

     Sudden drop in BP after eating. It affect mostly older adult and people with high BP.

3. Normally Mediated Hypotension :

     This disorder causes BP to drop after standing for long period leading to symptoms such as nausea and fatigue. It affect young people and it seems to occur because of the miss communication between heart and brain.

4. Low BP due to Nervous System Damage :

     This rare disorder causes progressive damage to the autonomic nervous system which control involuntary such as BP, HR, Breating and Digestion.

Ethiology :

  • Cardiac problems.
  • Severe blood loss.
  • Medications used for HTN.
  • Starvation.

Pathophysiology :

     Due to decreased stroke volume.

Clinical Manifestations :

  • Digginess
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion

Diagnostic Tests :

  • Check BP.
  • Ecg.
  • MRI.
  • CT.

Management :

  • Provide Iv Fluids therapy to decreased dehydration.
  • Sodium ( Na ) containing diet.
  • Avoid sudden movements from rest.
  • Take healthy diet ( Beetroot ).

Complications :

Coronary Artery Disease : Can lead to narrowing of blood vessels making them more like to block from blood clots.

Chronic Renal failure :
Constant high blood pressure can damage small blood vessels in the kidneys making it not to function properly.

Congestive Heart failure :
Pumping blood against the higher pressure in the vessels causes the heart muscles to thicken.

Cardiac Arrest :
High blood pressure can cause CAD, damaged arteries cannot deliver enough oxygen to other parts of the body eventually leading to heart attack.

Cerebrovascular Accident :
Hypertension lead to atherosclerosis and hardening of the large arteries. This in turn, can lead to blockage of small blood vessels in the brain. 

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