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Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia                   

          Hyperkalemia is defined as a plasma potassium level of greater than 5.0 mmol per liter.
  • Potassium concentration within human cells is approximately 70 mmol per liter, extracellular potassium concentration is normally 3.5 to 5.0 mmol per liter.

             Normal Potassium (k+) Levels : 3.5 - 5.0 mmol per liter.

    Mild hyperkalemia (>5.0 to 5.9 mmol per liter) :
    It requires monitoring and the avoidance of a high intake of potassium.

    Moderate hyperkalemia ( 6.0 to 7.0 mmol per liter ) "
    Greater degrees of hyperkalemia  

    Marked hyperkalemia (More than 7.0 mmol per liter)
    May lead to cardiac arrhythmias.

1. Calcium is indicated in all patients with hyperkalemia.
2. Calcium acts as a myocardial protective agent and stabilizes the heart from the deleterious effects of high potassium.
3. Calcium raises the activation threshold potential and restores the gradient between the resting membrane potential and threshold potential.
4. IV calcium acts rapidly and its actions last about 30-45 minutes. Constant monitoring of the ECG is required in all patients with hyperkalemia.

Medical Management :

Ecg Changes in Hyperkalaemia

  • T wave will be in Peak stage ( T wave height more than 5 boxes )

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