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Kidney Anatomy


Anatomy Of Kidney

  • These are a pair of bean shaped organs present just in-front of the posterior abdominal wall on both sides of vertebral coloumn.
  • They extend from T12 to L3 vertebrae.
  • The right kidney is present at a slightly lower level than in the left kidney.
  • They are placed slightly orbitly upper core is close to the vertebral column. Lower core is away from the vertebral column.
Image 01 : Anatomy of Kidney.

Covering Of  Kidney :

  •  Each Kidney has upper pole which is related to the supra renal gland and a lower pole.
  • It has got two borders ; Later border is convex; Medial border shows a notch called as hilum.
  • The hilum will give passage to renal artery, renal vein and ureter.
  • The kidney has two surface, arterior surface is convex. It is related to the other abdominal organs.
  •  Posterior surface is flat.

Image 02 : Layers of Kidney.

Interior of the Kidney :

  • Just inside the hilum, the ureter is dilated called as pelvis of ureter.
  • This is divided into 2 to 3 major clayx’s. Each major calyx is divided into 2 to 3 minor calyxs.
  • The remaining part of kidney is divided into outer cortex and inner medulla.The medulla is composed of renal pyramids.
  • The cortex is composed of cortical arches.
  • Part of the cortex will extend between the pyramids. This is called as renal columns.

Applied Anatomy :

·        Inflamation of kidneys : Nephritis.
·        Failure of the function of kidney : Renal failure.
·        ( The most common cause for renal failure is diabetes and hypertension. )

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